Model specification—what adjusting variables are analytically modeled—may influence results of observational associations. We present a standardized approach to quantify the variability of results obtained with choices of adjustments called the “vibration of effects” (VoE).

We estimated the VoE for 417 clinical, environmental, and physiological variables in association with all-cause mortality using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We selected 13 variables as adjustment covariates and computed 8,192 Cox models for each of 417 variables' associations with all-cause mortality.

  • Github repository
  • Assessment of vibration of effects due to model specification can demonstrate the instability of observational associations Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
  • Estimates, tables, and figures of the VoE for 417 risk factors for all-cause mortality
  • VoE overview by Zak Kohane via Twitter thread